Excerpt from Chapter 3 – “Supporting Evidence”

The Path Less Traveled by Jerrold Thacker

Excerpt from Chapter 3 – “Supporting Evidence”:

The suggestions presented in the preceding sections are, to
say the least, rather controversial. They suggest that galaxies
may not be immense agglomerations of stars as has been
assumed in astronomy but instead may be nothing more than
optical illusions created by the gravity lens effect of some
distant SuperStars.

Most photographs of galaxies are of fairly long duration, to
allow the faint outer portions to register on film and to show
maximum dimensions. This results in overexposure of the
central portion. Photographs taken with a short exposure do not
show the outer stars but generally show the presence of a
bright central core. The brightness and extremely high density
of stars within this central core are difficult to explain in terms of
clustered stars but are a natural consequence of the gravity
lens effect. (See Figure 3-24, for example.) Some special
galactic types, such as Seyfert and N-type galaxies, have
extremely small and intensely bright cores that almost certainly
result from the gravity lens effect.


Excerpt from Chapter 3 – “Reflected Images”

The Path Less Traveled by Jerrold Thacker

Excerpt from Chapter 3 – “Reflected Images”:

In previous paragraphs, primarily the spherical form of the
elliptical galaxy (similar in shape to globular clusters) was
considered, but most elliptical galaxies have a somewhat oval
or lens-like shape. Can these also be optical illusions? In a
word, yes, but in a manner that at first is not obvious.

As a simple example of the effect, suppose you shine the light
from a flashlight on a wall. A bright circle of light will appear on
the wall. Now shine the light at an angle to the wall. What you
now see is an elongated oval image instead of the circular
image when the beam was perpendicular to the wall. A similar
effect would be expected if the circular image of a globular
cluster were deflected by a SuperStar.

Excerpt from Chapter 3 – “Stellar Associations”

The Path Less Traveled by Jerrold Thacker

Excerpt from Chapter 3 – “Stellar Associations”:

Astronomers have also identified numerous star groups that,
although spread across several degrees in the heavens, are
apparently related. These groupings, which may be thought of
as very large and ill-defined open clusters, are called stellar
associations (Figure 3-18). In general, stellar associations have
been identified by the clustering of fairly rare star types (Types
0 and B stars, T Tauri stars). Although only a few of these
associations have been definitely identified, it is thought that
thousands of them may be within our galaxy. Such
aggregations have long intrigued astronomers. Based on
current estimates of size and distance, there is not enough
density or mass within these systems to support the
gravitational binding of the individual stars, yet these groupings
are clearly related. This enigma disappears, however, when the
associated star images are attributed to the gravity lens effect.
A wide scattering of stellar images, seen as a stellar
association, would be expected from a SuperStar with very
large gravitational mass (over half a million times as massive
as the sun) located within our galaxy.

Excerpt from Chapter 3 – “The SuperStar and Galactic Optical Illusions”

The Path Less Traveled by Jerrold Thacker

Excerpt from Chapter 3 – “The SuperStar and Galactic Optical Illusions”:

I am going to present some ideas that will show that some, or
maybe most, or even possibly all, of the clusters of stars we
see in the universe—galaxies and star clusters—are simply
optical images caused by the effects of gravity! The culprit is
the gravitational deflection of light, or, more simply, the gravity

Picture a solitary SuperStar off in the distance. Suppose it has
the gravitational force equivalent to one million of our suns.
What should we expect to observe?

Excerpt from Chapter 3 – “Deflection by Multiple Objects”

The Path Less Traveled by Jerrold Thacker

Excerpt from Chapter 3 – “Deflection by Multiple Objects”:

Astronomers believe they have found numerous double images
of quasars caused by the gravity lens effect, and pictures of
them can be easily found on the Internet. But all of these
assume very small deflections, based on Einstein’s simple
equation. I hope I have given enough fodder to feed the
concept that the deflection of light in deep space is larger than
that. But now I turn to a topic that, to my knowledge, has never
been considered by astronomers
. That is, if one object in space
can create two images because of gravitational lensing, then
two objects should be able to create four images; three objects
can create eight images, and so on. Figure 3-10 illustrates the


Excerpt from Chapter 3 – “Corrections to Einstein’s Equation for the Deflection of Light by the Sun”

The Path Less Traveled by Jerrold Thacker

Excerpt from Chapter 3 – “Corrections to Einstein’s Equation for the Deflection of Light by the Sun”:

Why is the deflection of starlight so much larger than Einstein’s
prediction? I puzzled over this question for over 60 years, but
only just recently did the final piece of the puzzle fall in place. It
was a very simple solution, hidden all these years and
discovered only because of an epiphany. Einstein made a
mathematical error that he could not have known about at the
time. That error: The velocity reduction is a logarithmic function
and not a linear one!

One of Albert Einstein’s most famous predictions was the
deflection of starlight by the gravitational effect of the sun. His
famous equation for the amount of deflection was based on his
knowledge that the velocity of light is reduced in a gravitational
field. He assumed that this velocity reduction was a function of
distance from the source (1/R), the same as gravitational
attraction, but modern experiments show that the reduction in
velocity of light because of gravity is actually logarithmic
(1/ln(R)). In this brief section, we modify Einstein’s equation for
the deflection of light by a gravitational source to incorporate
this new knowledge. As a result, the deflection of light by a
gravitational field is significantly larger at a distance than
provided by Einstein’s original equation, which leads to some
surprising new knowledge of the universe.

Excerpt from Chapter 2 – “A Failure to Communicate”

The Path Less Traveled by Jerrold Thacker

Excerpt from Chapter 2 – “A Failure to Communicate”:

It is unbelievably hard to achieve the goal I have set for this
book—to overturn years of deep-seated belief in the Big Bang
and to revert to a completely new concept of the universe
based on the tired light hypothesis. I feel rather like an ant
trying to stop a runaway freight train. It is particularly hard when
I am faced with deliberate suppression or even hostility, but
some of the difficulty is based on a failure to communicate, as
the famous saying from Cool Hand Luke goes.

As an example, I recently reviewed a series of archived
discussions on the Wikipedia entry for Tired Light. These
discussions covered a period from 2005 to 2007. In effect, the
discussions centered on what to include and what to exclude in
the Wikipedia pages for tired light. In more than 35,500 words
of discussion, the word “Shapiro” was never mentioned, even
though it had appeared on the web for many years associated
with tired light. To be fair, I’m sure this was not a deliberate
attempt by these reviewers to suppress or ignore the Shapiro
effect as the cause of the tired light effect. In fact, I’m sure they
had never even heard of it. Instead, the absence of the word is
a symptom of the deep chasm that exists between professional
scientists (academicians) and the rest of the world.

Excerpt from Chapter 2 – “Evidence from Gamma Rays”

The Path Less Traveled by Jerrold Thacker

Excerpt from Chapter 2 – “Evidence from Gamma Rays”:

The evidence that gravitational fields in outer space reduce the
velocity of photons and therefore cause a redshift as a function
of distance keeps rolling in. The most recent evidence comes
from gamma rays emitted by a blazar— a supermassive black
hole that periodically releases bursts of gamma rays—located
500 million light-years away.

The discovery was made using the new MAGIC (Major
Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov) telescope,
located on a mountaintop on the Canary Island of La Palma.(8)
Because gamma rays are blocked by Earth’s atmosphere,
astronomers have figured out a clever trick to see them from
the ground. When gamma rays strike the atmosphere, a
cascade of particles and radiation is released. The Cherenkov
technique detects this cascade and then works backward to
calculate the direction and energy level of the gamma rays.

(8) http://news.ucdavis.edu/search/news_detail.lasso?id=8364

Excerpt from Chapter 2 – “The Shapiro Effect and Hubble’s Law”

The Path Less Traveled by Jerrold Thacker

Excerpt from Chapter 2 – “The Shapiro Effect and Hubble’s Law”:

We have seen that the Shapiro effect, or the gravitational time
delay, as predicted by Einstein, should cause light from distant
galaxies to lose energy and thus be redshifted, and because
the amount of redshift would be dependent on distance, the
redshift should be correlated with distance. In other words,
Hubble’s law, as it relates to galaxies, is correct as a means to
estimate galactic distances. However, there is a very important
point to be made here. What we have said does not change the
fundamental Hubble’s law in its original form, that redshift is a
measure of distance for galaxies (but not quasars), but what
the Shapiro effect shows is that the redshift from distant
galaxies is not due to the Doppler effect and velocities of
recession but is a natural result of the influence of the
intergalactic gravitational field on the propagation of light.